VI- Prophet's Biography
Three years before Hijrah (immigration) to Al-Madînah, in the same month when his uncle Abu-Tâlib died, the “Mother of the Believers” and wife of the Prophet (SAWS), Khadîjah bint Khuwaylid, died as well. The Prophet's grief was immense since she was his main advocate and one of the kindest people to him. He did not take another wife until she died. He often remembered her after her death and prayed for her.
She bore him all of his sons except Ibrâhîm. Their first son was Al-Qâsim who died at a very young age. It is said that he lived until he learned how to ride a horse. It was after this son that the Prophet (SAWS) was called "Abul-Qâsim".
Their second child was Zaynab who married Al-`Âs ibn ur-Rubay` before the beginning of the Message. She gave birth to Umâmah, who married `Ali ibn Abu-Tâlib after the death of his wife Fâtimah Az-Zahrâ'.
Ruqayyah was the third child, who married `Uthmân ibn Affân; and together they immigrated to Abyssinia. After her death, he married her sister Um-Kulthűm in Al- Madînah.
After Ruqayyah, Um-Kulthűm was born and then Fâtimah, who married `Ali ibn Abu-Tâlib. Fâtimah gave birth to Al-Hasan and Al-Husayn. `Abdullâh was then born, who was also named “At-Tayyib (Arabic: good, of noble descent) and At-Tâhir (Araboic: pure, virtuous)”. His birth was after the Message, but he also died young.
None of the Prophet's children outlived him, except for Fâtimah who lived for six months after his death.
A few days after the death of Khadîjah, the Prophet (SAWS) married the Qurayshi woman Sawdah bint Zam`ah. She was one of the earliest believers, and had immigrated with her husband to Abyssinia during the second immigration. Shortly after their return the husband died. Hence, the Prophet (SAWS) married her. She is the one who let him stay with `Â'ishah on the day when he was supposed to stay with her.
The Prophet then married `Â'ishah bint Abu Bakr As-Siddîq when she was about six or seven years old. They were wed when she was nine years old. She was his dearest wife, and the most knowledgeable woman in the nation, to the extent that the Prophet's eminent companions used to ask her about religious matters. The revelation never came to the Prophet (SAWS) while he was in another woman's bed.
Afterwards, he married Hafsah bint `Umar ibnul-Khattâb . He then married Zaynab bint Khuzaymah ibn ul-Hârith, who died two months after their marriage. He then married the Qurashi woman Um-Salamah Hind bint Abu Umayyah. After that he married his cousin Zaynab bint Gahsh who was from the tribe of Banu Asad ibn Khuzaymah. She was the daughter of his paternal aunt Umaymah.
He then married Juwayriyah bint ul-Hârith after he freed her, who was a captive from the tribe of Banu Al-Mustaliq, so that the Muslims would follow his example. Consequently, all the Muslims freed the women captives of Al-Mostalaq in honor of this marriage. As a result, the entire tribe of Banu Al-Mustaliq embraced Islam, and thus Juwayriyah was the most fortunate woman among her people.
Following that, the Prophet (SAWS) married Um-Habîbah bint Abu-Sufyîn Sakhr ibn Harb, who was also called Hind or Ramlah. Afterwards, he married Safiyyah bint Huyay ibn Akhtab, the chieftain of the tribe of Banu An-Nadî r. His last wife was Mayműnah Ibint ul-Hârith, who had been with his uncle, the greatest martyr, Hamzah ibn `Abdul-Muttalib. She was also the aunt of `Abdullâh ibn `Abbâs. The Prophet (SAWS) married her in Makkah during the `Umrah (small pilgrimage to Makkah) he made in the seventh Hijri year, but they were not wed until he finished his `Umrah.
When the Prophet (SAWS) died, he was married to nine wives: `Â'ishah, Hafsah, Zaynab bint Gahsh, Um-Salamah, Safiyyah, Um-Habîbah, Mayműnah, Sawdah and Juwayriyah. The first one who died after him was Zaynab bint Gahsh, and the last one was Um-Salamah. He also had four concubines, including Mariah the Coptic who is the mother of his son Ibrâhîm, who died in his infancy before weaning. This was in the tenth Hijri year.
Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) had eleven uncles. Only Hamzah and Al-`Abbâs, the youngest one, were Muslims. All of them, except Abu-Tâlib and Az-Zubayr, were stepbrothers to his father. He also had six aunts. Only Safiyyah, the mother of Az-Zubayr ibnul-`Awwâm, was a Muslim.
In addition, Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) had many male and female slaves, and he let most of them free. Among them was Zayd ibn Hârithah, whom he let free and married off to his slave Um Ayman, and she gave birth to Usâmah ibn Zayd.
Many were honored to serve him, including Anas ibn Mâlik, `Abdullâh ibn Mas`űd, Bilâl ibn Rabâh, and AbuDharr Al-Ghifâry.
His scribes were Abu-Bakr As-Siddîq, `Umar ibnul-Khattâb , `Uthmân ibn Affân, `Ali ibn Abu-Tâlib, Mu`âwiyah ibn Abu-Sufyân, Az-Zubayr ibnul-`Awwâm, `Amr ibnul-`Âs; and many others who used to write down the revelation, treaties, and his messages to kings and princes.